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County graffiti surveys in several areas across England have carried out some fascinating research but the public can still help to identify more witches' marks.
We want the public to tell us about where they have seen apotropaic marks and what they look like so we can better understand how they were used.
A few have been recorded recently at Shakespeare’s Birthplace for example, where they are carved near the door to the cellar, once the store for precious beer.
They have been spotted in medieval barns like the Bradford-on-Avon Tithe Barn, where they were etched into the ancient timber to protect crops.
These letters, scratched into the fabric of medieval walls, engraved onto wooden beams and etched onto plasterwork were thought to beseech the supreme protective power of the Virgin Mary.
Apotropaic marks can be found in medieval houses, dating from around 1550 to 1750.
This Halloween, Historic England is calling on the public to share photographs, information and knowledge of where they are, to help create a record of England’s apotropaic marks.
They really fire the imagination and can teach us about previously-held beliefs and common rituals.
Ritual marks were cut, scratched or carved into our ancestors’ homes and churches in the hope of making the world a safer, less hostile place.
The team believes it is likely to be the only accurate likeness of a Scottish “witch” in existence as most were burned, destroying any hope of reconstructing their faces from skulls.
Presenter Susan Morrison said: “It was a truly eerie moment when the face of Lilias appeared.“Here was the face of a woman you could have a chat with, though knowing her story it was a wee bit difficult to look her in the eye.”Dr Christopher Rynn, who carried out the work using state-of-the-art 3D virtual sculpture, said: “When the reconstruction is up to the skin layer, it’s a bit like meeting somebody and they begin to remind you of people you know, as you’re tweaking the facial expression and adding photographic textures.“There was nothing in Lilias’ story that suggested to me that nowadays she would be considered as anything other than a victim of horrible circumstances, so I saw no reason to pull the face into an unpleasant or mean expression and she ended up having quite a kind face, quite naturally.”Ms Adie, from Torryburn, Fife, had been sentenced to be burned to death but died in prison beforehand with one theory being she committed suicide.
Daisy wheels comprise a single, endless line which supposedly confused and entrapped evil spirits.